Thursday, August 27, 2020
Pen Marked - Essay Example This conversation is an utilization of the means of basic intuition in Penn-Mart case update or contextual analysis. Before applying the means of basic intuition in Penn-Mart contextual analysis, it is essential to layout the advantages of basic reasoning. Browne and Keeley (2014) takes note of that basic reasoning assists people with responding definitively, audit and pundit an introduced material. In this regard, applying basic intuition in Penn-Mart reminder frames the reason for its survey and analysis. In light of the authors explanation of thoughts and ends, the peruser can either acknowledge or dismiss the introduced material. The initial step of basic deduction as introduced by Browne and Keeeley (2014) is recognizable proof of the issue and finish of the topic. At the end of the day, this progression includes recognizable proof of the contention, speculation and the anticipated or foreseen correspondence. To distinguishing the issue, Browne and Keeley (2014) exhorts that one should reflect and bring inquiries up with respect to what the essayist is reacting or responding to. In this regard, the issue in Penn-Marts case is the heightening consumption as far as human services benefits for the workers. Alternately, there must likewise be the distinguishing proof of the end in basic reasoning. This includes a reflection on what the creator of the material is tries to set up (Browne and Keeley, 2014). For this situation, the finish of Penn-Mart case can be found from the goal of the proposed Recover program. It is the conviction of the author that improving workers consciousness of their individual wellbeing status and consequently helping them recognize medical issues that could be mitigated or decreased by methods for singular improvement approaches would essentially lessen the expenses brought about by Penn-Mart through social insurance benefits. The author obviously characterizes the issue and end. The second step of basic reasoning is distinguishing proof of the justification (Browne and Keeley, 2014). This
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The effectiveness of situational crime prevention as a means of reducing the impact of crime on society Essay Example
The adequacy of situational wrongdoing counteraction as a methods for decreasing the effect of wrongdoing on society Essay The administration are utilizing situational wrongdoing counteraction as a methods for decreasing the effect of wrongdoing on society. I will inspect the viability of SCP. Situational Crime Prevention withdraws from standard criminology in that it centers around the significance of the open door for wrongdoing to happen, the settings for wrongdoing, as opposed to upon those perpetrating the violations, forestalling the event of wrongdoing, as opposed to on identifying and rebuffing guilty parties. As per Item A, situational wrongdoing anticipation includes in the prompt circumstance wherein wrongdoing happens to diminish its probability or earnestness. This includes concocting hypotheses that could be tried to lessen the appeal of a specific wrongdoing, for instance utilizing more CCTV and security monitors in shops, have against climbing paint on dividers, have a local watch territories and so forth. One of the principle wrongdoing in the public arena today is shop lifting, situational wrongdoing counteraction as a methods for lessening the effect on society today utilize blue inked labeled on garments stores, this labels are gotten into garments and when somebody is attempting to come out the shop without paying regularly it will make a commotion that way the shop colleagues will realize that the individual hasnt paid, or if the do attempt to come out of the shop there is a label that is hard to take off, even the individual manages to take of the label it will leave a blue stain on the garment. We will compose a custom paper test on The adequacy of situational wrongdoing anticipation as a methods for diminishing the effect of wrongdoing on society explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom paper test on The adequacy of situational wrongdoing anticipation as a methods for diminishing the effect of wrongdoing on society explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on The adequacy of situational wrongdoing avoidance as a methods for diminishing the effect of wrongdoing on society explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer This has helped this kind of wrongdoing diminish anyway there are still shops lifting going on and there are devises that individuals can have so as to take of the tag with no issues. Most shops currently have watches remaining at the entryway to check for any baffling conduct in individuals, which they reserve the option to stop any one on the off chance that they figure they could have shop lifted. Theft in ones house is another type of wrongdoing and it is as yet regular presently, even big names get burgled, situational wrongdoing counteraction have thought of having neighbor watch territories, where individuals in the neighbor hood join to look out for their territory to ensure that there is nothing dubious is going on, and anything goes on gets announced, having the sign neighbor watch region has decreased thievery just as different violations, for example, littering and battles in the city anyway this despite everything goes on. The same number of neighbors neglect to report such wrongdoing because of the way that they are apprehensive or never pay special mind to any doubts since they don't know about the earth as they have different issues to stress over. Additionally most criminals loot houses in the night when the neighbors are a rest. We know by law prostitution is illicit and is classed as a crook whenever indicted. Making it unlawful is one method of forestalling such wrongdoing anyway individuals are as yet doing this in many pieces of the nation. Situational wrongdoing avoidance have likewise dispensed red regions so now and again polices will watch in these zones which they think prostitution is normal. Then again individuals state that they are nit the suspect rather they are the person in question. Also, ought not be fined or imprisoned for being the person in question, as most ladies or men get captured into this demonstration as a result of cash or family issues, there ought to be support for these individuals and more training. Taking everything into account, situational wrongdoing anticipation, has diminished wrongdoing and made regions less appealing for the suspect, anyway this doesn't stop wrongdoing inside and out. The best wrongdoing avoidance that the vast majority concur with is CCTV cameras, as being gotten on camera is strong proof in court and suspects are more averse to do wrongdoing when there is a camera in see. Be that as it may, having CCTV camera damages people groups security and their opportunity. The subject of having CCTV cameras wherever is up to discuss. There are numerous situational wrongdoing anticipation that have worked however as everything else there are additionally down focuses.
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Differences (and Similarities) Between Dystopian and Post-Apocalyptic Fiction From The Hunger Games to The Walking Dead, dystopian and post-apocalyptic stories have become massively popularâ"and their popularity shows no signs of slowing down. In many cases, the line between the two genres is decidedly blurred. However, each has unique characteristics that separate it from the other. Most noticeably, while dystopian fiction often explores social or political struggle, society is still operating and has not yet collapsed (although it might be on the brink). Meanwhile, in apocalyptic fiction, the focus is less on society and more about the characters or a man vs. nature conflict.Lets look at each of these genres in more detail.What is dystopian fictionGenerally, dystopias use contemporary society as a basis for their imagined dystopias, lending an element of social warning in the texts. In this way, authors can use facets of modern society to imagine what a futuristic one might look likeâ"and in a dystopia, that future is most often very dark and troubling.The Netflix original dystopian series Black Mirror is a great example of how this is done, as it shows how things like social media and overuse of technology might be contributing to a dystopian future for humanity. The series, as well as many other dystopian works, shows how technology might soon prove to be more harmful than good (for us as a species, and for civilization in general), and how it could indeed be making us less humanâ"and less humane.Netflixs Black Mirror is a great example of modern dystopian storytellingDystopian literature and worksThe rise in dystopian literature follows the rise in technological innovation. In many ways, it can be seen as a response to (and fear of) the innovation we depend on in our day-to-day lives. It asks questions like: Where will all this lead us? And will social order survive?As a direct and contrasting response to utopian literature, dystopian fiction is most often seen as a genre that began with E.M. Forsters The Machine Stops, a short s tory published in 1909 in The Oxford and Cambridge Review. It was later republished in Forsters The Eternal Moment and Other Stories in 1928. In the story, humanity is forced to live underground and must rely on a large machine to provide for it. In Yevgeny Zamyatins We, the future is one that is governed entirely by logic and reasoning, with characters named D-503 and O-90. George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four, shows a society at constant war and controlling its people through propaganda, censorship, and an oppressive police state.Aldous Huxleys Brave New World, written in 1931, is the story of a world in which citizens are drugged, genetically modified and placed into castes based on their intelligence. Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, published in 1962, shows a future, dystopian England that is plagued by youth violence. Margaret Atwoods The Handmaids Tale is a dystopian tale in which the future United States is a totalitarian theocracy and women have no rights.Dystopian fictio n has also become extremely popular among Young Adult (YA) readers, with titles like The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, The House of the Scorpion by Nancy Farmer, Divergent and Insurgent by Veronica Roth, The Maze Runner by James Dashner, and Delirium by Lauren Oliver.Some of the common themes and situations seen in dystopian fiction are:Mass povertyA police state or abuse of power by governmentTechnology gone wrongLoss of individualismIneffective or oppressive social institutionsOveruse of technology or citizens harmed/controlled by itPost-apocalyptic fictionKnown as apocalyptic fiction or post-apocalyptic fiction, the genre involves an event in which civilization or society has collapsedâ"whether from natural or man-made circumstances, alien invasion, zombie infections, nuclear war, etc. Therefore, one of its qualities that differs from dystopian fiction is that in the latter, there is still a society or social order (although it might be unbearable for those caught within it). Photo by Scott Rodgerson on UnsplashSince apocalyptic fiction involves characters attempting to survive, it is often more focused on characters and their interaction with others. Themes such as sharing limited resources, trusting strangers, and surviving together are the focus. In this way, apocalyptic fiction allows authors to introduce the depths of their characters most basic fears and needsâ"and ultimately, determine what it means to be human in the first place.Other common themes and situations seen in apocalyptic fiction are:Depletion of resourcesDangerous weather patterns and/or exposure to the elementsRadiation after a nuclear warPandemic sickness (causing extreme loss of life)Loss of technologyNomadic livingGroup dynamics in survival situationsApocalyptic literature and worksMary Shelleys The Last Man, which was published in 1826, is considered to be the first work of apocalyptic fiction. In it, she describes a plague that kills off most of the worlds population as a group moves through Europe to attempt to escape it. Stephen Kings The Stand, published in 1978, follows a small group of survivors as they attempt to survive a man-made superflu.The Walking Dead is a post-apocalyptic comic-book series written by Robert Kirkman, Tony Moore, and Charlie Adlard, about a group of survivors attempting to escape zombies that have become infected with a deadly (and reanimating virus). Richard Mathesons 1954 novel I Am Legend, which was later adapted for film, likewise describes a global pandemic that has turned the worlds population into zombie-like creatures.Emily St. John Mandels Station Eleven, published in 2014, focuses on a nomadic group of actors and musicians known as the Travelling Symphony and shows a world in which a global pandemic has killed off much of the worlds population. James Dashners The Maze Runner trilogy, published between 2009 and 2011, shows a world in which sun flares have scorched the planet, forcing the worlds governments to kill off most of the population to save resources. Most recently, All Systems Down by Sam Boush is an American novel describing a cyber war that brings down Western infrastructure, causing society to collapse in its wake.Cormac McCarthys The Road is perhaps one of the best written post-apocalyptic novels to date. Published in 2006, it has since been awarded the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for Fiction. It was also adapted to a film, which was released in 2009 and directed by John Hillcoat.The following quote is one of the reasons McCarthys tale is so poignant:He walked out in the gray light and stood and he saw for a brief moment the absolute truth of the world. The cold relentless circling of the intestate earth. Darkness implacable. The blind dogs of the sun in their running. The crushing black vacuum of the universe. And somewhere two hunted animals trembling like ground-foxes in their cover. Borrowed time and borrowed world and borrowed eyes wit h which to sorrow it.Cormac McCarthys The RoadWe dont even know the main characters name, but Cormac McCarthy created a masterpiece of post-apocalyptic fiction with The RoadIt is this kind of live-in-the-moment simplicityâ"without smartphones or television distracting usâ"that attracts modern audiences to apocalyptic fiction and is perhaps one of its greatest themes.
Monday, May 25, 2020
An adjective clause functions almost exactly like a solo adjective, to modify a noun. Adjectival clausesÃ are dependent clauses, and usually begin with a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whomÃ or whose) or a relative adverb (where, when, and why).Ã There are two main types ofÃ adjectivalÃ clauses: nonrestrictive and restrictive. Heres a little bit about how to distinguish between the two.Ã Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses An adjective clause set off from the main clause by commas is said to be nonrestrictive. Heres an example: Old Professor Legree, who dresses like a teenager, is going through his second childhood. This who clause is nonrestrictive because the information in the clause doesnt restrict or limit the noun it modifies ( Old Professor Legree). The commas signify that the adjective clause provides added, not essential, information. Restrictive Adjective Clauses On the other hand, an adjective clause that is restrictive should not be set off by commas. An older person who dresses like a teenager is often an object of ridicule. Here, the adjective clause restricts or limits the meaning of the noun it modifies ( An older person). A restrictive adjective clause is not set off by commas. So to review, here are the basic rules. An adjective clause that can be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should be set off by commas and is nonrestrictive. An adjective clause that cannot be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should not be set off by commas and is restrictive Practice Identifying Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses For each sentence below, decide if the adjective clause (in bold) is restrictive or nonrestrictive. When youre done, check your answers at the bottom of the page. Students who have young children are invited to use the free daycare center.I left my son at the campus daycare center, which is free to all full-time students.John Wayne, who appeared in over 200 movies, was the biggest box-office attraction of his time.I refuse to live in any house that Jack built.Merdine, who was born in a boxcar somewhere in Arkansas, grows homesick every time she hears the wail of a train whistle.My new running shoes, which cost more than a hundred dollars, fell apart during the marathon.I lent some money to Earl, whose house was destroyed in the flood.The thing that impresses me the most about America is the way parents obey their children.A physician who smokes and overeats has no right to criticize the personal habits of his patients.The beer that made Milwaukee famous has made a loser out of me. Answers RestrictiveNonrestrictiveNonrestrictiveRestrictiveNonrestrictiveNonrestrictiveNonrestrictiveRestrictiveRestrictiveRestrictive
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3919 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? As technology has advanced, retailers were able to improve their profit margins despite the prevailing competitive environment. They are well aware of their customers buying patterns and behavior. They know how to satisfy the needs and wants of their customers while saving a sufficient amount of profit margin for themselves. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Why Profits Of Product Industry Are So High Finance Essay" essay for you Create order The reason why product based industry is so very well able to understand the psyche of their customers and use it as their own advantage is the availability of sufficient tools and theories to understand the market mechanism and its related variables in detail. They are able to devise business strategies in accordance to their goals and objectives, and implement them effectively. If we glance at the service industry in the very same fashion, it is clearly visible that they are not as comfortable with their customers as product based industry. Though they are available with tools and theories to understand their market as well but it certainly is not in as much detail as product based industries. 1.1 Pricing for Banks Pricing is one of the chief variables of strategic marketing and it has the most significant and direct impact on the sales revenue of any organization, and even then there are a very few conceptual researches making precise suggestions about setting prices. According to a research, pricing of services has been even given lesser attention than product pricing. But since service is becoming gradually more important part of the economy, the need to be aware of more about the pricing of services has developed; banking being the most important. There are two pricing challenges unique to service pricing that services are intangible and irreplaceable. (Rob Docters, 2004). Finch identifies some other including inseparability of production and consumption, heterogeneity and perishability. (J.Howard Finch, 1998) Banking being more complex than other services makes it more interesting and to an extent more troublesome as well. Pricing banking services is an art in itself. Iuliana Cetine ( 2010), in her research says that for a bank the price is one of the fundamentals of the marketing mix. The prices ought to be in conformity with the other Ps (product, placement, promotion) and they have to not be taken as a merely financial problem, where they are calculated by adding a margin of profit to the estimated costs; pricing is much more to it. Depositing and lending are two core operations for a bank, pricing these deposits and loans can significantly affect the overall performance of banks; but a research shows that banking executives are not very much able to handle pricing so well. Talking about lending in particular, banks usually are not able to convert their goals and objectives into an effective pricing strategy. Many banks still rely on ancient ways of pricing and handling loans. They have acquired technology for risk-management purposes but acquiring technology for pricing is something banks still have not yet paid attention towards. (Iuliana Cetine, 2010) Frank Rohde, who is a chief marketing officer at Nomis Solutions, claims in one of his interviews to FST that pricing process of retail banks is fundamentally broken. He talks about the US banks and banks all over the world, mentioning about how banks price, he says that pricing executives come up with pricing strategy without any knowledge about the volume and profitability; profitability teams further come up with different sets of rates with a pure subjective judgment about the pricing behavior of the consumers and market fundamentals. They lack of information and proper analysis as they lack tools essential for these purposes, they are not able to set appropriate targets. Even if they do, they are unable to understand the reasons of deviations from the set targets and how exactly can they correct their policies. Pricing technology is necessary to understand the pricing mechanism properly. Pricing instead of taking as a side operation should built as a core competency by the ban ks. It directly influences the targets and revenues of the banks. Mr. Rohde further claims that the basic root of the credit crisis is that banks have not been able to translate their knowledge of market demand and profitability into a practical pricing strategy. (Rohde, 2008) 1.2 Pricing theories with respect to granting Loans As mentioned earlier, depositing and lending are two core areas of banking. This research will primarily focus on the lending part of the banking operations. It will take into account all the pricing strategies banks have been using in the past and the strategies that are still in practices with regard to the pricing of loans. It will identify the areas which are crucial for devising effective pricing strategies and the areas where these strategies lack. It will further identify aspects in which these strategies have affected and still affecting banks till present day. Banks may include retail banks, commercial banks, investment banks, community banks and much more. This study will be focusing more towards the working of retail banks. Retail banks work with consumers and small business enterprises. Investment banks being vast subject in its own will be completely excluded from this research. There a number of theories devised for pricing of banking products and specifically f or granting loans as well. Nora Mihail in her research identifies cost plus profit, taking the cream, price depending on competition, price depending on value and price to penetrate as basic theories for banking products including lending. (Iuliana Cetine, 2010) These terms are self explanatory; Cost plus profit calculates all the relevant costs and further adds a margin of profit to it, taking the cream is for high quality newly introduced products to take the cream demand, price depending on the competition takes the competitors prices as a base criteria, price on the market checks for the already settled prices at the market, price depending on value is based on the value of the service perceived by the customers whereas price to penetrate is charging a low price in the start to gain a substantial share in the beginning. (Iuliana Cetine, 2010) Traditionally flat-rate pricing has been in practice by most of the banks. In flat-rate pricing strategy all customers obtain the loan at the same pre-decided rate set by the bank. As the article published by Bench Mark Consulting International says that flat rate is used by the banks which lack technology to design a sophisticated policy and therefore use a flat rate to to keep it simple (King, 2007). The problem with flat rate loan is that high credit quality borrowers can get loans at cheaper prices because of the regular use of risk- based pricing methods (mentioned in detail later) whereas lower credit quality loans find this rate cheaper and this leads to a very risky equilibrium which prove to be futile for the bank. There is a clear line between the banks who use a thoroughly planned systematic approach to loan pricing and those who just go by the market. Thomas A. Hannagan in his study points out certain questionable practices of the banks. The first one he pointed out is the omission to add any costs related to the risk of the loan leading bad credits to obtain loan at a cheaper amounts. Another practi ce he questioned is baseless assumptions about the costs bank incur to originate and maintain existing borrowers and the third one is when lenders estimate a very large earning from a credit than it actually is. (Hannagan, 2004) Theorists often talk about risk-based pricing when it comes to pricing bank loans. Risk based pricing, in simple terms, is charging higher to the risky entities and lesser to the lower risk entities. It keeps in line, the loan price with the anticipated loan risk. As mentioned by KANSAS on its official website that this method allows the lender to obtain a level of return that is in accordance with the taken risk and it follows the principle of financial theory of risk and return. (KANSAS, 2010). Managers of known banks claim that, despite tough economic conditions, they are able to increase volume by following the risk based pricing. They instead of avoiding risk are opting for a suitable combination of risk and return; this can help them grow. Risk Base d Loan pricing can help in better risk management but there are certain drawbacks or in better words, limitations of risk based pricing. As Robert Phillips says that undoubtedly charging higher for higher is a sensible as well as profitable idea but this obviously is not final in pricing complexity. Risk-based pricing does not take a number of factors into account, one of which is the price sensitivity of customers into consideration. (Phillips, 2005) Bankers usually like this design in which lenders have better understanding of the available pricing options and the respective price is reached quickly. Lender can know in advance about the fee that will be charged to them and they can further look at the benefits of growth in total relationship with the bank. Hannangan says that can also use this loan pricing system to cross sell other fee based services of the bank. This gives rise to Relationship Based Pricing. (Hannagan, 2004) With the passage of time different non-banking f inancial institutions entered the place which was once the territory of banks. Banks faced a tough competition but did not lag behind. A basic rule of marketing any product or service is a differentiating factor. Relationship with the customer was a factor that banks could use as their differentiating factor to compete. Banks generally are likely to have long relationships and associations with their customers. This can build a loyalty factor among customers as well. Relationship pricing strategy takes the relationship with the customer as the basis to set a price. It usually takes into consideration, customers loyalty time, the total amount of business he provides, the frequency and type of transactions he does etc. (Relationship Pricing, 2010) A research on relationship banking supports this type of pricing by adding that the progress of bank-firm relationship can lead to benefits for the lender as well as borrower in terms of cost reduction or increased revenues and reduced ra tes. (Fredriksson, 2007) This kind of pricing takes into account all the services that a particular customer is availing. As mentioned by Thomas Hannagan, this pricing system can let lender receive benefits from the indirect ways such as deposit accounts. He states an example in which a borrower negotiated for a low-rate loan by guarantying to maintain a certain level of deposits in the bank which can help bank improve its return ratios. (Hannagan, 2004) Both the parties can negotiate for mutual benefit. SAP, a German software corporation providing software to support businesses globally, elaborates in its industry briefing about the pricing of banks. According to SAP banks have prospects to perk up their profitability by optimizing their price structure. (SAP, 2009) Bank instead of working on the price they need to sell at should focus on the price customers are willing to buy at. Simple pricing models only take monetary aspect of the transactions into account but advance models take all non price factors to give a true picture of rates and volume. Price optimization can help banks to come up with rates according to their growth strategy. If a bank plans to increase its profits without affecting volume, price optimization model comes up with a rate that bank needs to offer a particular chunk of customers and achieve its goal. Similarly if a bank intends to augment its volume with significant profits, the model calculates a price consumer intends to spend for a product in any area of business; it also shows how the pricing is balanced among loan products to maintain the overall strategy intended by the bank. (SAP, 2009) Pricing optimization allows executives to pull pricing as a core strategic driver of performance. Pricing should not be taken as a secondary function. Pricing should be treated as a core proficiency, it can be used a tool which can quickly and significantly influence the required results of the fiscal year. (Rohde, 2008) Banks can further use what-if analysis to alter the recommended strategy according to what is more feasible and comfortable to the suggested targets. Banks and other non-bank financial service providers who were relying merely on risk assessments have started employing value based approaches to pricing credit. The competitive environment in which banks are working in, value based pricing can help banks to continue with profitable growth. (David Vidal, 2009) A paper identifies certain structural guidelines to implement value based pricing; the steps researcher mentioned are identifying the factors that influence customers willingness to pay, define pricing segments along the structure identified, quantify ability to profitability change your pricing by measuring price elasticities and implementing the selected value based pricing approach using price optimization models. (David Vidal, 2009) Customer Loyalty is something that is extremely important for all the banks; it can be considered as one of the most valuable assets of a bank. Taking into account the aggressive environment, retaining customers is becoming increasingly difficult. Girish P B in his article says that retaining and increasing good business with a current profitable customer is more cost effective than targeting a new customer. Selection of a good pricing strategy can help banks retain profitable customers. (Girish, 2010) Moreover as mentioned earlier as well, pricing strategy has a direct influence on revenues and banking targets of a bank. A suitable pricing strategy can help bank increase its revenues, achieve targets, improve business ratios, increase business effectiveness, amplify its volume, improve on profitability, enlarge its customer base, and plenty of other factors important for a business. All these variables, their influencing variables and their relationship will be comprehended further in this study. INDUSTRY BACKGROUND Banking industry is the backbone of any economy. It is considered fundamental to economic growth. Banking industry alone can affect the entire economy, if banking industry of an economy is not working well; it will directly impact the working of the whole economy and vice versa. Banks in simple terms are described as financial institutions which accept deposits and issue loans. Banks extend loans to corporations and individuals to invest, handle savings and handle transactions. Though banking industry has evolved over time in economic, financial and technological aspects, the loan component of the banking has not advanced as much as the other services provided by banks. Banks have been able to handle their loans very well. Banks which extended credit have encountered loan defaults while other banks did not extend sufficient credit to perform well. Some banking executives and theorists claim the pricing component of the loans to lack. Banks cannot effectively price their loans ; some do not take all the pricing components into account while others which do, are unable to comprehend their behavior. Product based industries are available with sufficient pricing strategies to cater their needs. They are able to implement their strategic goals and objectives and excel in every dimension; as they can effectively translate their business strategies into pricing tactics. Banking professionals also have pricing theories for their assistance which have improved with the passage of time but despite focused considerations banks have not been able to perform up to the mark. This clearly indicates that either the pricing strategies bankers are available with are not enough or they lack in some key areas which still need to be addressed in order to completely understand the key influencing variables. Research Aim The aim of this research is to comprehend the pricing strategies and key influencing variables in pricing of loans, so that the banks are in a position to develop better performing and effective pricing strategies that alignment with their strategic business plans. Research Questions: Research question 1: In what aspects can pricing strategy be important for the banks with respect to granting loans? Research question 2: What factors are taken into account by Banks while devising their pricing strategy? Hypothesis Poor loan pricing strategy is the key factor due to which banks are unable to achieve their strategic business objectives Existing pricing theories cannot help banking loans to perform up to the mark Objectives Comprehend the strategies that banks use for pricing their loans Indentify and elaborate on the aspects that can be influenced by pricing strategies banks adopt for pricing their loans Identification of the most suitable loan pricing strategy and suggestion for further improvement in the weaker areas of existing loan pricing models and theories. METHODOLOGY Business researches, depending on the nature of a research, can usually be classified into three basic categories which are exploratory, descriptive and causal research. Exploratory research is carried out in the beginning stages of decision making when the decision circumstances are vague and management is very unsure about the nature of the problem. Descriptive research is carried out when the management knows about the problem but not completely aware of the entire situation. (Zikmund, 2001) This type of research answers who, what, where and how questions. Causal study is carried out when the problem is very clear, specific and sharply defined. The cause and effect relationship among the variables is identified. (Zikmund, 2001) This study will fall under the causal category of research. The problem of the study is clearly defined and the hypothesis are stated which would be defended further in the research. The problem area is the loan pricing and its causal relationships wit h other variables will be identified to further identify and discuss the areas where current loan pricing strategies lack. It may have a little tinge of descriptive category as well when the pricing strategies that banks have used in the past or are still using will be identified and elaborated upon. This research will primarily be based upon secondary data sources. Different studies of different authors from different corners of the globe will be thoroughly studied and scrutinized in order to get hold of the subject and get a complete understanding of the subject matter. All the direct, indirect, moderating and intervening variables will be identified, a theoretical framework will be designed identifying the relationship among the variables and their significance; they will be studied in detail to reach justifiable conclusions. Dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researcher analyses the dependent variable to get his answers. Here in this study it may be the volume of the loan, the profitability or the effectiveness of the strategy (this will be dealt further in detail). The independent variable is the one which influences the dependent variable. In this case it may be the interest rates, economic repercussions, loyal relationship etc. A moderating variable has a strong effect on the relationship of direct and indirect variable. The intervening variable is a surface in time when indirect variable starts influencing and the time when its influence is felt. All the relevant literature, studies, theories will be examined. The empirical evidences and regressions run in other applicable studies will also be taken into account to deduce the relationship among variables. The objectives of the research will be kept in mind while examining other studies in order to stay focused. Hermeneutical text analysis will be used in the study to analyze and discuss the strategies used by banks for pricing their loans. Hermeneutic s is a research technique which is followed by an interpretive pattern on text scrutiny. Hermeneutics is widely used in social sciences including researches in economics and business. Hermeneutics is a method of research which allows the researcher to interpret the texts in its background and draw a meaning accordingly. In order to understand something properly, one needs to take it in context and one need to have knowledge about it, and hermeneutics allows the researcher to combine both of these necessary elements to gain complete understanding of the relevant text. Thus hermeneutics makes use of the blend of information and contexts to generate fresh facts and gain additional understanding in research (Cole Avison, 2007); as in order to draw legitimate and justifiable conclusions, it very important to know about the social, political, economic and historical aspects of an event. Hermeneutics comprises of five concepts: the hermeneutic cycle, the hermeneutic horizon, fusion of horizons, rejection of author-intentionality and critique (Mir Prasad, 2002) A research on hermeneutics says that Hermeneutics means the theory of interpretation, i.e. the theory of achieving an understanding of texts, utterances, and so on (it does not mean a certain twentieth-century philosophical movement) (Forster, 2007) Hermeneutics is the research method in the field of text analysis which offers the researcher to interpret texts in their context and therefore derive meaning. As knowledge about something needs both information and context, hermeneutics enable to combine both to gain understanding. In social sciences the historical, political, economic and social backgrounds of phenomena have to be analyzed carefully to draw correct and legitimate conclusions (Mir Prasad, 2002). The major philosophy and concept of hermeneutics is its cycle. The cycle states that the part can only be understood from the whole and the whole can only be understood from the parts. (Mir Prasad, 2002) This means that in order to get the complete understanding of the parts, one need to know about the context and the whole scenario and in order to understand the whole scenario, one need to have a complete understanding of the parts. The social and cultural aspects are also taken into consideration. Not only the research subject is what the analysis will be based on but a separate analysis of the context is also required. While studying loan pricing, not only the directly related variables are taken into account, the environment in which those variables work has also to be taken into account to get an enhanced understanding of the working of actual variables. Timescale The way this research will be carried out is suitably planned; expected time for each part of the study is also determined. Things will take place exactly according to the pre-determined plans as this will help us give appropriate time to each section and as well as finish the study on time. In order to work in a systematic manner, keeping the time constraint in mind, the analysis part of the report is divided into four sub-parts, relevant data collection, analysis of the data collected, further analysis and final deductions. As this study is based on secondary data, analysis and data collection are the cornerstones of this study. Therefore, these stages will be carried out with utmost care. Following table shows how the time divided among different stages of the research: Sr.no. Task No of Weeks 1 Literature review 5 2 Analysis Relevant Data Collection 4 3 Analysis of Data Collected 4 4 Further Analysis and Data Collection 5 5 Analysis Final Deduction 3 6 Final Report write up 4 7 Final Presentation write up 1 8 Presentation Preparation 1 Though the planned will be followed strictly, still a room for delays is kept in mind. Some tasks (most likely analysis and literature review) may require extra time depending on the situation. If such things happen which is not very likely, we can use the room kept for delays or we can reduce time from other stages if they can be completely early without any compromise with the quality of work. Resources This study is not very costly to conduct, since it is relying on secondary sources for data. No primary activities will be carried out at any business locations. Access to Business and Marketing Journals is the major resource needed for this research. Access to quality data is major requirement and something that will significantly influence the quality of this research work. Moreover a computer with an online access to articles is all what is needed.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
All human beings have three lives: public, private, and secret. -- Gabriel Garcia Marquez If you are not paying for it, youre not the customer; youre the product being sold. -- Anonymous Do you remember the last time something was taken from you that was rightfully yours? My answer would be high school when someone snatched my wallet with all my hard earned money in it. Stealing in the United States, depending on the total value of items stole, and the state, is a crime punishable up to life imprisonment. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also one of the only things that is agreed upon in any part of the world; stealing is wrong. The Federal Bureau of Investigation reported that approximately 412,000 larceny arrests were made in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to read that stuff! People have no idea what they are signing up for. Further, they probably donÃ¢â¬â¢t know those terms of service are legally binding. IÃ¢â¬â¢m here to tell you what you really are signing up for. Everything you put on social media is legally yours; with the exception of a few things that is. You werenÃ¢â¬â¢t expecting that right? Below I will briefly describe relevant user content laws on some of the most popular social media websites: Facebook - Facebook owns all of your posted content, unless you choose to delete it. If your content has been shared by someone else, you are unable to delete it and Facebook claims ownership. Twitter- You own any post 140 characters or Pinterest- You own everything you posted originally. However, Pinterest reserves the right to modify any of your original content, making any modified version their property. Deleting content takes this right away from Pinterest. However, anything that has been repinned by others becomes the property of Pinterest. So why are there so many rumors about social media websites stealing and or owning our content? IÃ¢â¬â¢ve already given you the answer. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t read the terms of service. As future leaders in the world, we need to take that extra time and actually read the things we are accepting online. This not only protects our personal future, it will give us the opportunity to educate others laterShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Privacy On Usage Trends For Social Networking Sites1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe rise of social media networks and web applications has amounted to a large amount of multimedia data being produced and communicated across the world. Although user awareness for risks associated with using these websites and applications is at an abysmally low levels as measured by an independent survey. The risks and challenges such as identity theft and disclosure of sensitive information should be properly addressed towards customers to avoid any potential loss of their priva te and personalRead MoreIs The Absolute Security On The Internet?1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Do you believe that there is absolute security on the Internet? 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Global Institutionalization Of Financial. Answer: Introduction and Overview: Globalization is restructuring and developing new technologies in every sector has bought tremendous transformations in every aspect of life. Smart technological innovation and transformation has a crucial impact on performance of organization. Innovation is the pillar of smart technological approach that focuses on establishing a competitive market. The proper concept of encouraging smart technology is implemented upon a sustainable investment plan in the human capital of United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Abu Dhabi. UAE has planned innovation and vision 2021. The city has planned to bind technology transformation, human resource management and organizational performance. The UAE adopted the measurement tools involving the Abu Dhabi innovation index for observing progress towards adoption of smart technology (Reiche 2010). The government is arranging innovation and progression labs to get solutions to the challenges that face entities of government. All the stakeholders are going to discuss the challenges of government through the perspectives focused on solution. The aim of ICT is to offer empowerment of technological sector and empower their contribution to the UAE and Abu Dhabi growth to develop requirements and region through service to the community. Purpose of Proposal: Abu Dhabi continues to highlight itself as one of the leaders in digital transformation in the age of smart government development. The Abu Dhabi e-government supervisory committee and digital leadership team of transformation demonstrates the intention of government of Abu Dhabi in enhance momentum of development (Dhabi 2005). The improvement in government performances, optimization in delivery of service and transformation is going to make Abu Dhabi a truly smart city within 2030. The research proposal concentrates on the aspects of smart digital transformation of Abu Dhabi. Some of the purposes of the research proposal are to verify the following considerations that are- Technological orientation would have a significant positive effect on the technological improvement of Abu Dhabi government. Business performance would have a significant positive effect on the technological enhancement of Abu Dhabi government. Educational sector might have a significant positive effect on the technical upliftment of Abu Dhabi government. Information technology and space technology would have a positive effect on the technological enhancement of Abu Dhabi government. Key Research Questions: Orientation and Initiative of digital transformation received a governmental boost with the e-Government Supervisory Committee and the digital transformation leadership team meeting for reviewing and developing digital policies, projects and plans within its well-organized and clear operational framework (Almekhlafi and Almeqdadi 2010). The government has devoted considerable effort for increasing levels of e-government in United Arab Emirates. The interests and questions regarding smart technological movement of Abu Dhabi are- Do you use mobile phones? Are you regular user of computers and internet? Do you have e-mail id and account in other social networking websites? Do you fulfil your entertainment over internet? Do you search information over internet? What is the amount of average daily hours you keep yourself online? Do you enjoy the service of telecommunication service operators by the government? Are you happy with the telecommunication service provided by the government? Are you happy with the internet service facility provided by the UAE government for household purpose? Have your telecommunication services improved over past two or three years? Have your internet services improved over past two or three years? Are you associated with the governmental electronic services such as radio, television or government e-portal via internet? Which of the governmental electronic services do you like most? Is government facilitating the improvement of an intranet, LAN, WLAN or extranet? Is business being easy for smart technology over internet? Is e-learning being helpful and beneficiary for the education over internet? How many computer laboratories are present in the school of your children? What is the percentage of schools of Abu Dhabi that have internet connection? Are you frequently addicted to the e-transaction method? Is government providing enough e-zone in Abu Dhabi? How many e-zones are available Abu Dhabi cosmopolitan and suburb region? How many government computer-learning centres are available in your locality? Do you enjoy broadband facility of government? Is Abu Dhabi taking responsibilities for public sector establishment? According to e-commerce, how government keeps relation with private sectors? Do the almost every small and middle size industries have internet facilities? Should government manufacture or export the necessary tools and automobiles for making Abu Dhabi a complete smart city? Is Abu Dhabi government taking necessary measures for the prosperity of wholesale market of telecommunication tools and equipments? Relevant Literature: Application: The Abu Dhabi smart technological transformation effectively delivers a platform for government authorities leading this drive to interact and engage with major industry partners, stake-holders, local and international computing and technological experts for demonstrating trends and global practices of technology. UAE government would like to drive the digital government transformation strategy and agenda. Innovation of technology, investment, partnership, cooperation and scopes focuses the major transformation projects and initiative planning of corresponding government (Sharjah 2006). Abu Dhabi Government inaugurated the Abu Dhabi Smart Government programme and Government Data Exchange program. It would refer investment of millions of dollars in smart technologies and solutions for facilitating fast integration of government-to-government interaction and interoperability for raising productivity, increase the quality of life of end-users and strengthen the position of Abu Dhabi as an ideal investment and business destination (Harder and Gibson 2011). Information technology experts mandate to develop and operate a centralised technological platform for procurement of government. UAE government entities must use all their purchases, goods and services to be done through centralised contracts (Irvine et al. 2008). Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, robotics, augmented reality and cloud computing are transforming the approach of smart technology in UAE. The Abu Dhabi Technology Development Committee (TDC) was found for encouraging, helping and supervising the enhancement of science, technology and innovation in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi in 2009. The multi-structure of Abu Dhabi science, technology and innovation is generating sustainable and vast knowledge, nicely integrated into the global ecosystem. The government policy of Abu Dhabi is engaging and inspiring youths of nation towards establishing a talent base in Science, Technology and Innovation. The consistency through all the trends is generating the rate of change by technology. The fast developing technology is predicting the trend of improved business productivity. Significantly, bigger gaps are being created for exponential enhanced technology. The current trend shows that Abu Dhabi has performance management of 85%. Different types of segments of digital fields such as analytics, Digital HR, Robotics, cognitive computing and Augmented Interface are being updated day by day. Routine appraisal systems are updating drive productivity and engagement in performance. The trade of Middle East businesses would help to move towards new thought process and innovation. Some high-tech gadgets and systems could prove that Abu Dhabi is one of the worlds most futuristic cities. They are launching most luxurious shopping malls, hotels, traffic channels, smart cities and transportations of the world. Some of the envy-inducing tech innovations are Jetpack Firefighters, Autonomous Drone Taxis, The Hotel of the Future, Real life Robo-Cop, Autonomous Police cars, Mega Solar Plants and Mobile food delivering drones. Abu Dhabi is going to be most promising navigating city in next twenty years in Middle-East Asia. Opportunities Abu Dhabi as a local data hub would join a globally wired network of developing cities and countries. A portfolio of local and regional data portals and analytics engage stakeholders and help accelerate progress across metropolitan, national and global contexts with continuously growing network of certified cities. As Abu Dhabi, look to become smarter, more sustainable and more forward, it could fulfil sustainability ambitions. The success of Abu Dhabi plan 2021 is based on holistic and follow-up approach that uses data to benchmark and inform its future. The research underlines the progress that Abu Dhabi has made its smart transformation. Therefore, the city is now commanding global attention. A regional hub for the Abu Dhabi would provide us with further momentum to carry out the strategies to turn Abu Dhabi into the smartest city of the globe. Furthermore, Abu Dhabi would help to spread success to rest of the middle-east region, leading to achieve the smart transformation. Abu Dhabi as the smart city with smart government services would make the business dealings and lives of people easier (Mezher, Dawelbait and Abbas 2012). Smart platform of centralised Abu Dhabi became one of the most connected cities in the planet. Smart Abu Dhabi 2021 invites intelligent use of information and communications technology to convert the core components of the city (McKenzie, Hs, and Schneider 1980). Abu Dhabi pulse platform transformed the changes and shifted towards smart technologies. The smart technology relies up on big data analysis and cloud computing. It is essential to have a central platform for accessing governments data that steps into the potential of artificial intelligence for spreading happiness and satisfaction among the people. Transformation in change has been identified to have both positive and negative impacts on the employees work performance and attitude (Sohl 1999). Within 2030, reliance of human on technology would generate a true partnership developing skills such as ingenuity, zeal and commercial mindset. It would bring into line with the capability of machines for bringing speed, mechanization and efficacies. The production would permit new scopes within industries and functionalities. Within that period, assistants of integrated artificial intelligence (AI) would be successful for taking care in analytical and computerized ways. Technology will not essentially substitute work forces, but the methods of resulting work would transform. Machine learning technologies would make skills of individuals and competencies searchable. According to the data of April 2015, the investments in space and communication technologies have included investments in the space data. The UAE is very interested to develop its abilities in the sector of ICT that constantly undertaking measures. The first step was generating free zones such as TwoFour54 in Abu Dhabi. The second step is to set up UAEs telecommunications regulatory authority. Until 2014, the ICT fund invested 1.6 AED billion in different projects in information and communication technology sector involving the communication and space technology. The UAE government is very keen to utilize information and technology tools to not only convey services in quick easy manner but also to deliver customised services near future. Mubadala, an Abu Dhabi government invests in a worldwide portfolio of excellent information and communications technology resources. Providing high-tech employment scopes in information technology, technology, telecoms and satellite operations, the event is praised with a conference that give a stage for developing ICT associated topics. The smart technology in Abu Dhabi develops the best processes to enhance public health by refering priority disease conditions and monitoring upliftment towards availing objectives. The 3D printing technology and strategy target to take advantage of technology for the humanity service and endorse the status of United Arab Emirates and Abu Dhabi as a principal hub of 3D printing technology within 2030. Nuclear science and technology are destined to make UAE approved nuclear power plants within the UAE. Challenges: Being a city of desert region, Abu Dhabi is facing challenges for manufacturing the industrial automobiles. The scarcity of raw materials in local area like iron, copper and mica could damage the infrastructural growth and hamper the manufacturing the technological tools. Besides, Dubai is a nearby much prospered city that could throw challenges to the Abu Dhabi. Many foreign or local private authorities may be obstacles for the smart technological growth of local government. Current and emerging external factors may challenge the performance of company. High land requirements are problematic issue for smart technology of Abu Dhabi. Sometimes, limited service lines and defensive strategies of local government of Abu Dhabi are being the severe obstacles. Methodology: Investments in science, technology and research are vital priorities for the Abu Dhabi. It results innovations in smart technological field. A research methodology has two types of research methods that are qualitative and quantitative. It includes experiments, survey research, observations of participants or secondary data (Kothari 2004). Quantitative processes target to classify features, count the frequencies, establish statistical hypothesis, create statistical models, analyse statistical data and draw conclusion by explaining observations. Conversely, qualitative methods focus for a whole, elaborated description of observations including the background of situations (Hofstede et al. 1990). We suggest proper experimental and control group for hypothesis testing (Maxwell 2008). The independent and dependent variables are to be chosen for regression analysis of quantitative data. First, we have to incorporate survey research from target population (Kumar and Phrommathed 2005). The questionnaires should involve close-ended questions and open-ended questions for collecting free response. The most broadly used strategy for gathering qualitative data is observation of participants. The responses could be tabulated as tabulated primary data. Survey and semi structured interviews are conducted for data collection. The algorithm of sample survey and model designing is followed in the below chart- Sometimes, researchers analyse data that is already gathered by others. It is a secondary data approach. The most broadly used data are collected by government agencies. The questionnaires must be developed with full appreciation of the specific respondents of various backgrounds and require to keep the phrasing easy, compact and short. However, the disadvantage of using secondary data is that researcher might not be completely informed about how the data was collected or whether there is any symmetry in the collection of data or not. The sample sizes have to be calculated by proportional allocation with 95% confidence interval. A proper sampling plan should be framed for number of defined sample sizes. The nationality, age interval should be predetermined before data analysis. We apply here the secondary research data collected from the government website of UAE. The secondary datasets of telecommunication services could be gathered from government website (https://data.bayanat.ae/en_GB/organization/telecommunication-regulatory-authority). The sectors of smart technology are UAE satellites launching, TRA statistics and Telecommunication Regulatory Authority. The secondary data is consists of the variables households with internet, households with broadband, use of frequency of everyday internet and frequency of internet use in a week. This survey primarily looked into the internet and communication technologies (ICT) indicators for indication of the closely aligned multinational ICT regulatory agencies. For primary data analysis, we have chosen a target population in the Abu Dhabi suburb area and gathered information by interview method. Actually, face-to-face interview is the primary mode used in the survey. The proper questionnaire helps to collect datasets. The data would be mainly qualitative in nature. Research study is preceded by Survey fieldwork. We could organize those data of Likert scale, build necessary graphs and plots and test the hypotheses developed from research questions. The ordinal and nominal variables are categorical in nature. Responses might develop the structure of research questions. Some of the quantitative variables are measured by descriptive, correlation, regression or t-test procedures (Marshall 1996). Outcomes: The measurement model proves the reliability and validity of the chosen variables. The both primary data (mainly qualitative data) and secondary data (quantitative data) analysis decides proper outcomes about the leading trend of smart technological background sponsored by government in Abu Dhabi. The research proposal develops the incremental technologies to adopt advanced technologies who entered the local market with new or advanced technologies. This research proposal elaborates the role of smart technology orientation in Abu Dhabi and government performance. Significant shifts in artificial intelligence and smart technological transformations in next decade would entirely reshape the future of Abu Dhabi and beyond in which human and machine would be inseparable. The progress of smart technology exposes the two acute perspectives about computers and the future. The anxiety-creating issues of technological unemployment or the view of over-optimism in technology would treat all the social and environmental drawbacks of UAE. The empowerment of human-machine partnerships would help to enrich the society of Abu Dhabi. Timescale: Task to be completed Start date End date Days involved Status Approval of the Topic 11/1/2017 11/3/2017 3 Preparing the prospectus and thesis 11/3/2017 11/8/2017 6 Designing the preliminary bibliography 11/10/2017 11/11/2017 2 Collecting the research notes 11/12/2017 11/26/2017 15 Thesis revision and preparing the research outline 11/27/2017 1/30/2017 4 Outline revision 12/1/2017 12/8/2017 8 Introduction 12/9/2017 12/12/2017 4 Preparing a rough draft 12/14/2017 12/25/2017 12 Citing the pages involved 12/26/2017 12/27/2017 2 Draft completion 12/28/2017 1/3/2018 5 Finalising the draft 1/4/2017 1/5/2017 2 Done References: Almekhlafi, A.G. and Almeqdadi, F.A., 2010. Teachers' perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates school classrooms.Journal of Educational Technology Society,13(1), p.165. Dhabi, A., 2005. United Arab Emirates.Countries and Territories of the World, p.444. Harder, E. and Gibson, J.M., 2011. The costs and benefits of large-scale solar photovoltaic power production in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.Renewable Energy,36(2), pp.789-796. Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D.D. and Sanders, G., 1990. Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases.Administrative science quarterly, pp.286-316. Irvine, H., 2008, June. The global institutionalization of financial reporting: The case of the United Arab Emirates. InAccounting Forum(Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 125-142). Elsevier. Kothari, C.R., 2004.Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International. Kumar, S. and Phrommathed, P., 2005.Research methodology(pp. 43-50). Springer US. Marshall, M.N., 1996. Sampling for qualitative research.Family practice,13(6), pp.522-526. Maxwell, J.A., 2008. Designing a qualitative study.The SAGE handbook of applied social research methods,2, pp.214-253. McKenzie, J.A., Hs, K.J. and Schneider, J.F., 1980. Movement of subsurface waters under the sabkha Abu Dhabi, UAE, and its relation to evaporative dolomite genesis. Mezher, T., Dawelbait, G. and Abbas, Z., 2012. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers.Energy policy,42, pp.315-328. Reiche, D., 2010. Renewable energy policies in the Gulf countries: A case study of the carbon-neutral Masdar City in Abu Dhabi.Energy Policy,38(1), pp.378-382. Sharjah, B.O., 2006. (United Arab Emirates).Airport symbol. Sohl, T.L., 1999. Change analysis in the United Arab Emirates: an investigation of techniques.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing,65(4), pp.475-484.